Taweez or Amultes

Amulets and Protection of Allah?

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Priestly service charge was an idea alien in Islam. The priests in Muslim Ummah now not only sell their religious decrees (Fatwa) but also ask for money on all kind of religious service. A vicious circle of wealth and greed is created. Strangely so-called scholars are behind its support. These people would ask money for the performance of rituals from birth to burial. In this respect Allah has revealed in Quran (9: 34) about the Jewish and Christians scholars of Arabia during the life time of Prophet peace be upon him:

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O you who believe! Verily, there are many of the Ahbar and Ruhban  who devour the wealth of mankind in falsehood, and hinder (them) from the Way of Allah.  And those who hoard up gold and silver and spend it not in the Way of Allah, – announce unto them a painful torment.

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Some Muslims have developed whole bunch of activities related to Amulets or Taweez.  If we search out the necks of Muslims we would find that there are Taweez hanging, some times coral, shells, sometimes knives and sometimes Quranic verses.  These so-called Muslims believe that these amulets and talismans protect them from evils, diseases and calamities. Allah said in Quran

And when there came to them a Messenger from Allah (i.e. Muhammad Peace be upon him ) confirming what was with them, a party of those who were given the Scripture threw away the Book of Allah behind their backs as if they did not know!  They followed what the Shayatin (devils) speak about the kingdom of Sulaiman (Solomon)… (2: 101-102)

It is reported in Sunnan Abi Dawood on the authority of companion of Prophet, Abdullah ibn Masood that He heard Messenger of Allah peace be upon him  saying:

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حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْعَلاَءِ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو مُعَاوِيَةَ حَدَّثَنَا الأَعْمَشُ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ مُرَّةَ عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ الْجَزَّارِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَخِى زَيْنَبَ امْرَأَةِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ عَنْ زَيْنَبَ امْرَأَةِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ -صلى الله عليه وسلم- يَقُولُ إِنَّ الرُّقَى وَالتَّمَائِمَ وَالتِّوَلَةَ شِرْكٌ

 “ Charms, amulets, amulet of love is polytheism”

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Tamimah  (amulet) means any thing which is used for the protection (from evil).  In Jahalliah  the concept of Tamimah is criticized as the poet Abu Duhayb أَبُو ذُؤَيْبٍ said:

وَإِذَا الْمَنِيَّةُ أَنْشَبَتْ أَظْفَارَهَا

 أَلْفَيْتَ كُلَّ تَمِيمَةٍ لَا تَنْفَعُ

And when the death engraved her nails

I found all (kind of)  Tamimah non-beneficial

It is explained in Kitab Al Ain  by   الخليل الفراهيدي      Juz 8 pg111  that:

والتميمة: قلادة من سيور، وربما جعلت العوذة التي تعلق في أعناق الصبيان، قال: وكيف يضل العنبري ببلدة  بها قطعت عنه سيور التمائم  وفي حديث ابن مسعود: ان التمائم والرقى والتولة من الشرك

And Tamimah: Necklace of thongs, and perhaps made a protection that attached to the necks of the boys, ….  (In report from  Ibn Mas’ud: (amulets and spells and Tiwalah are polytheism)

It is claimed by some ignorant people that the amulets includes things which people hang for protection and  Quranic- Tamimah is allowed. However, Tamimah according to scholars also include the Quranic inscriptions as it is written and hanged for the sake of protection from evil and disease. The following statements are enough to prove that amulets include not only the shell and beads but also include all kinds of hangings used for protection including Quranic amulets.

1. Ibn Ubaid has written a book on  Gharib ul Hadith. Ibn Qutabah has written notes over it. On one of the comments of Ibn-Ubaid, Ibn Qutabah said:

قال أبو محمد ابن قتيبة في إصلاح الغلط ص 54: وهذا يدل أن التمائم عند أبي عبيد المعاذات التي يكتب فيها وتعلق

Ibn Qutabah says: it shows that Tamaim (amulets) to Abi Ubaid means all (kinds of) protections amulets  which are written and hanged. ( Islah Al Ghalat pg 54)

Ibn Qutabah further said: قال أبو محمد: وليست التمائم إلا الخرز Tamaim (amulets) are not only shells (or beads).

2. Qazi Abu Bakr Al Arbi says (in Sharah Al- Tirmidhi )

وَقَالَ الْقَاضِي أَبُو بَكْر الْعَرَبِيّ فِي شَرْح التِّرْمِذِيّ : تَعْلِيق الْقُرْآن لَيْسَ مِنْ طَرِيق السُّنَّة وَإِنَّمَا السُّنَّة فِيهِ الذِّكْر دُون التَّعْلِيق

The hanging of Quranic verses is not the way of Prophet and indeed his way is to read it instead of hanging it.

It is important to understand that all kinds of Taweez are impermissible where as the blessing spells which do not contain Sheerk  were allowed.  Some of the blessings spells which did not contain any polytheism were allowed by the Prophet peace be upon him . Any association with an object with the underlying belief that it can protect, is falsehood.  It is reported by Bukhari in Adab- Al Mufrad that

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– حدثنا إسماعيل قال : حدثني ابن أبي الزناد ، عن علقمة ، عن أمه ، عن عائشة ، أنها كانت تؤتى بالصبيان إذا ولدوا ، فتدعو لهم بالبركة ، فأتيت بصبي ، فذهبت تضع وسادته ، فإذا تحت رأسه موسى  ، فسألتهم عن الموسى ، فقالوا : نجعلها من الجن ، فأخذت الموسى فرمت بها ، ونهتهم عنها وقالت : إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يكره الطيرة  ويبغضها ، وكانت عائشة تنهى عنها

Newborn children were brought to Aisha may Allah be pleased with her, and she would pray Allah for the blessing. Once, a child was brought to her, as she was setting pillow underneath his head she saw a razor. So She asked about it. People said: We take this for (protection from) Jinn. So Aisha took the razor and threw away it. And prevented them from this and said Indeed the Prophet disliked Tira  (prediction from bird flights) and angered over it (when practiced) and Aisha prevented that.

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Aisah, Mother of Believers, may Allah pleased with her, totally rejected the idea of placing something under pillow based on the Tira hadith she heard from Prophet thus she implied that in Islam there is no concept of Protection from things other than Allah.

There is a narration reported in Musnad Ahmed according to which:

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حدثنا عبد الله حدثني أبي ثنا عبد الصمد بن عبد الوارث ثنا عبد العزيز بن مسلم ثنا يزيد بن أبي منصور عن دخين الحجري عن عقبة بن عامر الجهني : ان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أقبل إليه رهط فبايع تسعة وامسك عن واحد فقالوا يا رسول الله بايعت تسعة وتركت هذاقال ان عليه تميمة فادخل يده فقطعها فبايعه وقال من علق تميمة فقد اشرك

Uqbah bin Aamir   Juhni relates that there came a group to the Prophet peace be upon him. He took oath of allegiance from nine of them and left the one remaining. (People) said O Prophet why did you have left one. (The Prophet) said: “ An amulet is over him”. (Hearing that the man) put his hand inside (his shirt) and broke the amulet. Then (the Prophet) took the oath of allegiance from him also and said “whosoever hung an amulet, committed polytheism” (Musnad Ahmed, Juz 4, page 156)

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This hadith reveals that amulets of all kinds are impermissible. Prophet could have asked whether the amulet contains holy verses (of Torah or Injil). It is reported in Tirmidhi, Juz 8,pg 145

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حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ مَدُّويَهْ حَدَّثَنَا عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُوسَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ أَبِى لَيْلَى عَنْ عِيسَى أَخِيهِ قَالَ دَخَلْتُ عَلَى عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُكَيْمٍ أَبِى مَعْبَدٍ الْجُهَنِىِّ أَعُودُهُ وَبِهِ حُمْرَةٌ فَقُلْنَا أَلاَ تُعَلِّقُ شَيْئًا قَالَ الْمَوْتُ أَقْرَبُ مِنْ ذَلِكَ قَالَ النَّبِىُّ -صلى الله عليه وسلم- « مَنْ تَعَلَّقَ شَيْئًا وُكِلَ إِلَيْهِ »

… Issa said  that he went to visit Abdullah bin Ukeem Abi Mabid Al-juhni and he was suffering from Humra ( disease), so we said why don’t you hang some thing against it. He said Death is closer than that and Prophet said whoever hung anything would be assigned to that.

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The supporters of Taweez present one narration for the endorsement of their believes

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 حَدَّثَنَا مُوسَى بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادٌ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ شُعَيْبٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ جَدِّهِ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ -صلى الله عليه وسلم- كَانَ يُعَلِّمُهُمْ مِنَ الْفَزَعِ كَلِمَاتٍ « أَعُوذُ بِكَلِمَاتِ اللَّهِ التَّامَّةِ مِنْ غَضَبِهِ وَشَرِّ عِبَادِهِ وَمِنْ هَمَزَاتِ الشَّيَاطِينِ وَأَنْ يَحْضُرُونِ ». وَكَانَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَمْرٍو يُعَلِّمُهُنَّ مَنْ عَقَلَ مِنْ بَنِيهِ وَمَنْ لَمْ يَعْقِلْ كَتَبَهُ فَأَعْلَقَهُ عَلَيْهِ.

Muhammad bin Ishaq reports that Amr bin  Shoaib, he from his father and he from his grand father reports that Prophet used to teach the prayer to those who would become frightened during sleep: “ I seek refuge in Allah through His perfect words from His fury and  (seek refuge) from evils of His slaves and from evil whispers of demons and their presence ”( Abi Dawood )

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There are several flaws in this narration. First it is reported

1. The narrator has further added a statement of reporter as a comment which is not the saying of Prophet peace be upon him  (Tirmidhi juz 13, pg 34):

قَالَ وَكَانَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَمْرٍو يُلَقِّنُهَا مَنْ بَلَغَ مِنْ وَلَدِهِ وَمَنْ لَمْ يَبْلُغْ مِنْهُمْ كَتَبَهَا فِى صَكٍّ ثُمَّ عَلَّقَهَا فِى عُنُقِهِ. قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ غَرِيبٌ

Abdullah bin Amir used to hang this prayer in the necks of minor children.

2. Tirmidhi added that this hadith is Hasan Gharib (Unique and at the level less than Sahih) .

3. One of the narrators of this report is Amr bin Shoaib . His narrations from his father and then from his grandfather are (Tirmidhi, Juz 2, pg 65)

Tirmidhi says:

قَالَ عَلِىُّ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ وَذُكِرَ عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ أَنَّهُ قَالَ حَدِيثُ عَمْرِو بْنِ شُعَيْبٍ عِنْدَنَا وَاهِى

Ali bin Abdullah said that and reported from Yahah bin Saeed that Indeed the reports of Amr bin Shoaib to us are useless.

4. Narrator: Muhammad bin Ishaq: The fourth  flaw in this narration is that  it contains Muhammad bin Ishaq.  In Jarah-wal-Tadeel literature one would find both positive and negative statements for Mr. Muhammad bin Ishaq, ranging from Siqah (authentic) to Dajjal (Fradulent Person).  Ibn Ishaq is a controversial narrator. It is better not to take his narrations in Halal and Haram.   Imam Malik talks about Muhammad bin Ishaq and said (Tahzeeb ul Kamal, Tarjumah Muhammad bin Ishaq):

قال مالك وذكره، فقال: دجال من الدجاجلة

Dajjal in one of the Dajjals (Most deceptive and Fradulent Person)

Imam Malik used a technical term Dajjal min Dajjajlah i.e. Dajjal in one of the Dajjals

It is reported in Musannif Ibn Abi Sheebah that 

حدثنا أبو بكر قال حدثنا هشام عن مغيرة عن إبراهيم قال : كانوا يكرهون التمائم كلها ، من القرآن وغير القرآن

It is reported that Ibrahim ( Al –Nakhai) They (Companions) abhor all kinds of Taweez irrespective of Quranic or non-Quranic  ( Musanif Ibn Abi Shibah , juz 5, pg 428)

It is reported in Sharh Maani  Al-Aathar juz 5, pg 489 that

 وَقَدْ جَاءَتْ  عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ آثَارٌ تَنْهَى عَنْ التَّمَائِمِ

 And it comes from  Prophet the deterrence for Tamaim

Reader now is well aware that Tamaim (amulets) or Taweez are not permissible in Islam whether based on Quranic  verses or containing the names of Holy One.

Dear Muslim, just think about what sin you are committing when you take the taweez consisting of holy verse of Quran to the toilet!  We know that Humans are sometimes not clean and they need ritual bath for performance of Salat, even in that state the hanging of Taweez comprising of Holy verses in the neck make no sense. Further Allah has bestowed Shifa (cure) for diseases in honey as we know it from Quran. Now if you hang the jar of honey in your neck will you feel better if you never eat it? You won’t. Likewise Quran is sent by Allah to be read and understood. It is not meant to be hanged in Taweez.  You would get blessings of Allah only if you read it. May Allah save us from Kufr and Sheerk. Amen

[1] Sunan Abi Dawood, Chapter باب فِى تَعْلِيقِ التَّمَائِمِ Juz 11, pg 384

[2] Pre-Islam Era

[3] Sheerk is Polytheism

[4] Nasiruddin Al-Bani said in his noting on Al-Sahihah:

التمائم : جمع تميمة واصلها خرزات تعلقها العرب على رأس الولد لدفع العين ثم توسعوا فيها فسموا بها كل عوذة . ومن ذلك تعليق نعل الفرس أو الخرز الأزرق وغيره . والأرجح أنه يدخل في المنع أيضا الحجب إذا كانت من القرآن أو الأدعية الثابتة .

Al-Tamaim: Plural Tamima and originally are beads which Arabs attach to heads of boys to prevent (evil) eye… also includes the horse shoe or blue shells. And it is likely that the ban also includes the Quran and the proven prayers

Further said ( Al-Sahihah juz 1, pg 491)

” التمائم جمع تميمة و هي الورقة التي يكتب فيها شيء من الأسماء أو الآيات و تعلق على الرأس مثلا للتبرك ” . فما لا يصح لأن التمائم عند الإطلاق إنما هي الخرزات كما سبق عن ابن الأثير ، على أنه لو سلم بهذا التأويل فلا دليل في الشرع على أن التميمة بهذا المعنى تنفع ، و لذلك جاء عن بعض السلف كراهة ذلك كما بينته في تعليقي على ” الكلم الطيب ” ( ص 44 – 45 طبع المكتب الإسلامي

” Al-Tammaim (Amulets): Plural of Tamima (amulet) collection and is the paper on which something is written. It includes the names or verses and attached to the head, for example, to seek blessing. It is not valid that the Tamimah is only beads (or shells) as previously discussed by Ibn al-Athir, ……so as shown in my comment on Al-Kalam Al-Tayyab pg 44-45”

[5] The scholars who defend this narration and argue that Tirmidhi has called this narration Hasan. Tirmidhi has introduced the term Hasan in hadith which does not mean that it is Sahih narration. Dahabi said in Meezan Al-Ateedal juz 3 pg 407

لا يعتمد العلماء على تصحيح الترمذي

Scholars do not rely on the authentication of Tirmidhi

Dahabi also said (Meezan, juz 4 pg 416 ) فلا يغتر بتحسين الترمذي، فعند المحاققة غالبها ضعاف

Not deceived by saying of Hasan by Al Tirmidhi, by us in reality most are weak

[6] Bukhari says (تاريخه الكبير: 6 / الترجمة 2578.):

وقال البخاري: رأيت أحمد بن حنبل، وعلي بن المديني، وإسحاق بن راهويه، وأبا عبيد، وعامة أصحابنا يحتجون بحديث عمرو بن شعيب، عن أبيه، عن جده، ما تركه أحد من المسلمين

Bukhari says “I have seen Ahmed bin Hambal and Ali bin Al-Madini and Ishaq bin Rahweeh and Abi Ubaid and all our people (scholars of hadith) take the hadith of Amr bin Shoaib from his father from his grandfather and no one in Muslims had left him”

In spite of these words of Bukhari in his Tareekh Al-Kabeer, Imam Bukhari has not taken any narration from Amr bin Shoaib from his father from his grand-father in his Sahih. Dahabi showed surprise in Meezan al- Atedal after this statement of Bukhari that

ومع هذا القول فما احتج به البخاري في جامعه -3 / الترجمة 6383

… and with this statement (of Bukhari) why not Bukhari has taken his narrations in Jamah (al- Sahih)?

[7] Ibn Haban explains this term is his book on Majroheen as:

وقال ابن حبان: ” دجال من الدجاجلة كان يضع الحديث على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم صراحا -المجروحين: 1 / 134

Ibn Haban says: A Dajjal from dajjals is one who concocts hadith intentionally.

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