Presentation of Deeds

Are our deeds presented to Allah or  to his  Prophet?

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Almighty Allah has informed us in his glorious book that all records goes back to Allah.  Allah says in Quran:

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وَإِلَى ٱللَّهِ تُرجَعُ ٱلأُمُور

And to Allah return all matters (for decision). [Al- Baqara 2:210]

وَإِلَيهِ يُرجَعُ ٱلأَمرُ كُلُّهُ

and to Him return all affairs (for decision). [Hud 11:123]

وَلِلَّهِ عَـٰقِبَةُ ٱلأُمُورِ

And with Allah rests the end of (all) matters (of creatures). [Al-Hajj 22:41]

وَإِلَى ٱللَّهِ عَـٰقِبَةُ ٱلأُمُورِ

And to Allah return all matters for decision. [Luqman 31:22]

أَلَآ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ تَصِيرُ ٱلأُمُورُ

Verily, all matters at the end go to Allah (for decision). [Ash-Shura 42:53] 

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It is reported in Sahih Muslim

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Abu Huraim reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying, “The deeds of people would be presented every week on two days, viz. Monday and Thursday, and every believing servant would be granted pardon except the one in whose (heart) there is rancour against his brother and it would he said: Leave them and put them off until they are turned to reconciliation.”  (Sahih Muslim, Book #032, Hadith #6224)

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This shows that from Quran and Sahih ahadith our deeds are presented to Allah and none else. However there are narrations which speak otherwise and it is important to investigate the authenticity of these narrations.

 

This is most quoted narration and attributed to Abdullah ibn Masood may Allah be pleased with him, one of the companions of Prophet peace be upon him.

 

It is reported in Nisai, chapter بَاب السَّلَامِ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ:

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أَخْبَرَنَا عَبْدُ الْوَهَّابِ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْحَكَمِ الْوَرَّاقُ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا مُعَاذُ بْنُ مُعَاذٍ عَنْ سُفْيَانَ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ ح و أَخْبَرَنَا مَحْمُودُ بْنُ غَيْلَانَ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا وَكِيعٌ وَعَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ عَنْ سُفْيَانَ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ السَّائِبِ عَنْ زَاذَانَ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِنَّ لِلَّهِ مَلَائِكَةً سَيَّاحِينَ فِي الْأَرْضِ يُبَلِّغُونِي مِنْ أُمَّتِي السَّلَامَ

Zazzan reported that Abdullah ibn Masood said: Messenger of Allah peace be upon him said Indeed there are roaming angles of Allah on Earth, they transmit the Salam of my Ummah to me.

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Also it is reported in Musnand Bazzaz:

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حدثنا يوسف بن موسى قال : نا عبد المجيد بن عبد العزيز بن أبي رواد عن سفيان عن عبد الله بن السائب عن زاذان عن عبد الله عن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم قال : ( إن لله ملائكة سياحين يبلغوني عن أمتي السلام ) قال : وقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم : ( حياتي خير لكم تحدثون ونحدث لكم ووفاتي خير لكم تعرض علي أعمالكم فما رأيت من خير حمدت الله عليه وما رأيت من شراستغفرت الله لكم )

Zazzan reported that Abdullah ibn Masood reported that Messenger of Allah peace be upon him said  My life is good for you that you report (ask) and I would tell you and my death is good for you , your deeds would be presented on me and I would praise Allah when I see good and I would ask Allah’s forgiveness if I notice evil.

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Both of these narrations are  reported by Zazzan,  who is a Shiite narrator, and among thousands of students of Abdullah ibn Masood he is the only narrator of this so-called ahadith.

Imam Dolabi has informed us in his work titled Al-Kuna-wal-Asma  (juz 4- pg 404) that the Zazzan was among the Shiites.

أخبرني محمد بن إبراهيم بن هاشم ، عن أبيه ، عن محمد بن عمر قال : « زاذان أبو عمر الفارسي مولى لكندة ، أدرك عمر ، وكان من أصحاب عبد الله ، وكان من شيعة علي ، هلك في سلطان عبد الملك

Muhammad bin Umer (Al-Waqidi) said that Zazzan Abu Umer Al-Farisi Maula Kindah found (the era of) Umer and was among the people of Abdullah (ibn Masood) and was from Shiites of Ali, died in the regime of Sultan Abdul-Malik

The statement of Al-Waqidi  is a historical record. Further,  Ibn- Hajar said in Taqreeb al-Tahzeeb (juz 1, pg 307)

زاذان أبو عمر الكندي البزاز ويكنى أبا عبد الله أيضا صدوق يرسل وفيه شيعية من الثانية مات سنة اثنتين وثمانين

Zazzan Abu Umer al-Kindi Al-Bazzaz and nicknamed Aba Abdullah also is Sudooq some times commit Irsal and has Shiite inclination died in year eighty two.

Ibn-Hajar and Dolabi both informed about the Shiite connection of Zazzan. The group of scholars, which support the believe of presented of deeds on Prophet, claim that Ibn-Hajar was influenced by Al- Waqidi. However there are evidences which support the inclination of Zazzan towards Shia’ism. Further it would be interesting to know that Ibn-Hajar has quoted Muhammad bin Umer Al-Waqidi  more than 200 times in Tahzeeb al-Tahzeeb only. This basically reflects the acceptance of Waqidi in keeping the record of history.

Now here  are the narrations reported by Zazzan which reflect his Shitte tendencies:

1.  It is reported  in  Fazail Sahabah compiled by Imam Ahmed (juz 2 pg 472) that:

حدثنا عبد الله ، قثنا أبي ، قثنا ابن نمير ، نا عبد الملك ، عن أبي عبد الرحيم الكندي ، عن زاذان أبي عمر قال : سمعت عليا في الرحبة  وهو ينشد الناس : من شهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يوم غدير خم وهو يقول ما قال ؟ فقام ثلاثة عشر رجلا فشهدوا أنهم سمعوا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وهو يقول : « من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه ، اللهم وال من والاه ، وعاد من عاداه »

Zazzan said: I heard Ali  in Al-Rahbah and he was preaching: Who saw the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him on the Ghadeer Khum?  He (Prophet) said what he said? Stood thirteen men and bear witness that  they heard the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, he said: «If I  am the friend of someone Ali is his friend O  Allah,  take as friend one who take him as friend and take as enemy one who takes him as enemy»

2. Also reported in Fazail Sahabah by Imam Ahmed (juz 3 pg 3) that:

حدثنا عبد الله قال : وجدت في كتاب أبي بخط يده وأظنني قد سمعته منه ، نا وكيع ، عن شريك ، عن عثمان أبي اليقظان ، عن زاذان ، عن علي قال : مثلي في هذه الأمة كمثل عيسى ابن مريم ، أحبته طائفة  وأفرطت في حبه فهلكت ، وأبغضته  طائفة ، وأفرطت في بغضه فهلكت ، وأحبته طائفة فاقتصدت في حبه فنجت

Narrated Zazzan from Ali that he (Ali) said: I am in this nation, like a  Jesus, son of Mary, A part of it  loved him ,and deviated in excessive  love and angered a party and exhibited excess in abhorrence (against me) ..

 3.  It is reported in Hadith Abi Fazl Azzuhri ( juz 1 pg 107) that:

أخبركم أبو الفضل الزهري ، نا إبراهيم ، نا صالح بن مالك ، نا أبو الصباح عبد الغفور ، نا أبو هاشم الرماني ، عن زاذان ، قال : حدثتنا عائشة أم المؤمنين ، قالت : أهدت إلي امرأة مسكينة هدية ، فلم أقبلها منها رحمة لها ، فذكرت ذلك لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ، فقال : « ألا قبلتيها منها وكافأتيها فلا ترى أنك حقرتيها ، تواضعي يا عائشة ، فإن الله يحب المتواضعين ، ويبغض المتكبرين »

Narrated zazzan that Aisha, Mother of Believers narrated to them; She said: A poor woman had donated a gift (to me); I had not accepted it as a token of mercy, I informed about this to the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him and he said: «  Why you have not accepted that and it would have been enough to show that you  do not see her as inferior , Oh Aisha,  Be humble, God loves humble  and hates the proud!

 

The above narrations are the examples of Shiite tendencies of Zazzan. Not only that he is considered as an authentic narrator in Shiite literature like Usool-al-Kafi etc. Dr. Bashshar Awwad Al-Maroof have indicated that narrations form  Zazzan is quoted in Shiite literature like  الكافي في القضاء والاحكام: 6، باب: النوادر 19 حديث رقم 12،  and also in another book titled

 والتهذيب: باب من الزيادات في القضايا والاحكام، حديث رقم 804).

It is reported in Al- Kafi H 1003, Ch. 93, h 2

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from  ibn al-Husayn from Musa ibn Sa‘dan from Abdallah ibn al-Qasim from al-Hassan ibn Rashid who has said the following. “I Heard abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) say, ‘When Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, would love to create the Imam He would command an angel to take a drink of water from under the Throne and his father to drink it and from this He creates the Imam. for the first forty days and nights in his mothers womb he would hear anything. After that he would hear the words. When he is born that angel comes and writes between his eyes, “. . .in all truth and justice, your Lord’s Word has been completed. No one can change His Words. He is All-hearing and All knowing.”  (6:115) When the preceding Imam passes away a light house made from light is prepared for him and this light house he examines the deeds of the creatures. By this means Allah establishes His authority over the creatures.”

The presentation of deeds of creation on Imams is a basic shitte belief, as indicated in the narration of Al-Kafi. Zazzan being a Shitte has spread the word to make this belief acceptable in non-Shitte circles of his era. Unfortunately the narration got acceptance in our books. Imam Bukhari and Muslim has not reported this narration in any of their books.

 

Also the narration of Zazzan is Munkar as it is against a Sahih narration reported in Bukhari  which cleared the role of roaming angels.

It is reported in Bukhari chapter باب فَضْلِ ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ

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حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ حَدَّثَنَا جَرِيرٌ عَنِ الأَعْمَشِ عَنْ أَبِى صَالِحٍ عَنْ أَبِى هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ – صلى الله عليه وسلم – « إِنَّ لِلَّهِ مَلاَئِكَةً يَطُوفُونَ فِى الطُّرُقِ ، يَلْتَمِسُونَ أَهْلَ الذِّكْرِ ، فَإِذَا وَجَدُوا قَوْمًا يَذْكُرُونَ اللَّهَ تَنَادَوْا هَلُمُّوا إِلَى حَاجَتِكُمْ . قَالَ فَيَحُفُّونَهُمْ بِأَجْنِحَتِهِمْ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ الدُّنْيَا . قَالَ فَيَسْأَلُهُمْ رَبُّهُمْ وَهْوَ أَعْلَمُ مِنْهُمْ مَا يَقُولُ عِبَادِى قَالُوا يَقُولُونَ يُسَبِّحُونَكَ ، وَيُكَبِّرُونَكَ ، وَيَحْمَدُونَكَ وَيُمَجِّدُونَكَ .قَالَ فَيَقُولُ هَلْ رَأَوْنِى قَالَ فَيَقُولُونَ لاَ وَاللَّهِ مَا رَأَوْكَ . قَالَ فَيَقُولُ وَكَيْفَ لَوْ رَأَوْنِى قَالَ يَقُولُونَ لَوْ رَأَوْكَ كَانُوا أَشَدَّ لَكَ عِبَادَةً ، وَأَشَدَّ لَكَ تَمْجِيدًا ، وَأَكْثَرَ لَكَ تَسْبِيحًا . قَالَ يَقُولُ فَمَا يَسْأَلُونِى قَالَ يَسْأَلُونَكَ الْجَنَّةَ . قَالَ يَقُولُ وَهَلْ رَأَوْهَا قَالَ يَقُولُونَ لاَ وَاللَّهِ يَا رَبِّ مَا رَأَوْهَا . قَالَ يَقُولُ فَكَيْفَ لَوْ أَنَّهُمْ رَأَوْهَا قَالَ يَقُولُونَ لَوْ أَنَّهُمْ رَأَوْهَا كَانُوا أَشَدَّ عَلَيْهَا حِرْصًا ، وَأَشَدَّ لَهَا طَلَبًا ، وَأَعْظَمَ فِيهَا رَغْبَةً . قَالَ فَمِمَّ يَتَعَوَّذُونَ قَالَ يَقُولُونَ مِنَ النَّارِ . قَالَ يَقُولُ وَهَلْ رَأَوْهَا قَالَ يَقُولُونَ لاَ وَاللَّهِ مَا رَأَوْهَا . قَالَ يَقُولُ فَكَيْفَ لَوْ رَأَوْهَا قَالَ يَقُولُونَ لَوْ رَأَوْهَا كَانُوا أَشَدَّ مِنْهَا فِرَارًا ، وَأَشَدَّ لَهَا مَخَافَةً . قَالَ فَيَقُولُ فَأُشْهِدُكُمْ أَنِّى قَدْ غَفَرْتُ لَهُمْ . قَالَ يَقُولُ مَلَكٌ مِنَ الْمَلاَئِكَةِ فِيهِمْ فُلاَنٌ لَيْسَ مِنْهُمْ إِنَّمَا جَاءَ لِحَاجَةٍ . قَالَ هُمُ الْجُلَسَاءُ لاَ يَشْقى بِهِمْ جَلِيسُه ُمْ »

Narrated Abu Huraira:

Allah ‘s Apostle said, “Allah has some angels who look for those who celebrate the Praises of Allah on the roads and paths. And when they find some people celebrating the Praises of Allah, they call each other, saying, “Come to the object of your pursuit.’ ” He added, “Then the angels encircle them with their wings up to the sky of the world.” He added. “(after those people celebrated the Praises of Allah, and the angels go back), their Lord, asks them (those angels) though He knows better than them ‘What do My slaves say?’ The angels reply, ‘They say: Subhan Allah, Allahu Akbar, and Alham-du-lillah, Allah then says ‘Did they see Me?’ The angels reply, ‘No! By Allah, they didn’t see You.’ Allah says, How it would have been if they saw Me?’ The angels reply, ‘If they saw You, they would worship You more devoutly and celebrate Your Glory more deeply, and declare Your freedom from any resemblance to anything more often.’ Allah says (to the angels), ‘What do they ask Me for?’ The angels reply, ‘They ask You for Paradise.’ Allah says (to the angels), ‘Did they see it?’ The angels say, ‘No! By Allah, O Lord! They did not see it.’ Allah says, How it would have been if they saw it?’ The angels say, ‘If they saw it, they would have greater covetousness for it and would seek It with greater zeal and would have greater desire for it.’ Allah says, ‘From what do they seek refuge?’ The angels reply, ‘They seek refuge from the (Hell) Fire.’ Allah says, ‘Did they see it?’ The angels say, ‘No By Allah, O Lord! They did not see it.’ Allah says, How it would have been if they saw it?’ The angels say, ‘If they saw it they would flee from it with the extreme fleeing and would have extreme fear from it.’ Then Allah says, ‘I make you witnesses that I have forgiven them.”‘ Allah’s Apostle added, “One of the angels would say, ‘There was so-and-so amongst them, and he was not one of them, but he had just come for some need.’ Allah would say, ‘These are those people whose companions will not be reduced to misery.’

 

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A similar kind of hadith is reported by Muslim  in chapter  باب فضل مجالس الذكر and in  Tirmidhi reported in chapter  باب مَا جَاءَ أَنَّ لِلَّهِ مَلاَئِكَةً سَيَّاحِينَ فِى الأَرْضِ

This shows that there are roaming angels but they look for people praising Allah. They are not roaming to send blessing prayers to Prophet peace be upon him.

It is reported in Musnad Ahmed, juz  4, pg 8, Sunan Abi Dawood juz 3, pg 404, Sunnan Nisai juz 1, pg 101,  sunnan Ibn- Maja juz 3, pg 447 that:

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 حدثنا عبد الله حدثني أبي ثنا حسين بن على الجعفي عن عبد الرحمن بن يزيد بن جابر عن أبي الأشعث الصنعاني عن أوس بن أبي أوس قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم : من أفضل أيامكم يوم الجمعة فيه خلق آدم وفيه قبض وفيه النفخة وفيه الصعقة فاكثروا على من الصلاة فيه فان صلاتكم معروضة على فقالوا يا رسول الله وكيف تعرض عليك صلاتنا وقد أرمت يعنى وقد بليت قال إن الله عز و جل حرم على الأرض أن تأكل أجساد الأنبياء صلوات الله عليهم 

Narrated Aus bin Abi Aus that Messenger of Allah peace be upon him said  Best of your days is Friday, on this day Adam is created and on this (day) he died and on this (day) there will  be Blowing (for day of Judgement)  and on this (day) their will be Shocks (due to day of Judgement)    so increase your prays of blessing on me on this day, as it is presented on me. We said O Messenger of Allah but how it will be presented on you when you would become dust  means you disintegrate, said: Indeed Allah has forbidden Earth to eat the bodies of prophets peace be upon them.

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The sanad (chain of narrators) is.

حدثنا عبد الله حدثني أبي ثنا حسين بن على الجعفي عن عبد الرحمن بن يزيد بن جابر

The two important narrators are Hussain bin Ali Al-Jofi and Abdur Rehman bin Yazeed bin Tammem.

Imam Bukhari has tracked this narration and state that this narration is not authentic. He said is in his work Tahreekh al-Saghir, juz 2 , pg 109

قال الوليد كان لعبد الرحمن كتاب سمعه وكتاب آخر لم يسمعه وأما أهل الكوفة فرووا عن عبد الرحمن بن يزيد بن جابر وهو بن يزيد بن تميم ليس بابن جابر وابن تميم منكر الحديث

 Al-Waleed said that Adbur-Rehaman had a book which he heard and a book which which he had not heard and people of Kufa have narrated from Abdur-Rehamn bin Yazeed bin Jabir but he is (actually Abur Rehaman)  bin Yazeed bin Tameem and not the Ibn-Jabir and (Abdur Rehman bin Yazeed ) Ibn Tameem is Munkar-ul-hadith.

Imam Bukhari also said is in his work Tahreekh al-Kabeer juz 5 pg 365

قال الوليد: كان عند عبد الرحمن كتاب سمعه (1) وكتاب آخر لم يسمعه

Al-Waleed said: Abdur Rehaman (bin Yazeed bin Tammem) had a book which he heard and another book which he had not heard

 

Imam Ibn-Abi Hatim said in his work Illal al-hadith juz 1, pg 19

وأمّا حُسينٌ الجُعفِيُّ : فإِنّهُ روى عن عَبدِ الرّحمنِ بنِ يزِيد بنِ جابِرٍ ، عن أبِي الأشعثِ ، عن أوسِ بنِ أوسٍ ، عنِ النّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي يومِ الجُمُعةِ ، أنّهُ قال : أفضلُ الأيّامِ : يومُ الجُمُعةِ ، فِيهِ الصّعقةُ ، وفِيهِ النّفخةُ وفِيهِ كذا وهُو حدِيثٌ مُنكرٌ ، لا أعلمُ أحدًا رواهُ غير حُسينٍ الجُعفِيِّ وأمّا عبدُ الرّحمنِ بنُ يزِيد بنِ تمِيمٍ فهُو ضعِيفُ الحدِيثِ ، وعبدُ الرّحمن بنُ يزِيد بنِ جابِرٍ ثِقةٌ.

And Hussain Al-Jofai: he narrated from Abdur Rehman bin Yazeed bin Jabir, from Abi Al-Ashath from Aus bin Aus from Messanger of Allah peace be upon him about the Friday and   repoted that  best of days is Friday, in it will be Shocks and Blowing and that and that is hadith Munkar, I know no one report it except Hussain Al-Jofai and as far as Abdur Rehman bin Yazeed bin Tameem is concerned, he is Daif-ul-hadith whereas Abdur Rehman bin Yazeed bin Jabir is trustworthy narrator.

The conclusion is that the narrator Hussain bin Ali al-Jofai has intentionally changed the name of narrator to Abdur Rehman bin Yazeed bin Jair. This slight twist in the name of narrator is done to misguide people. In fact the narrator is different and both Hussain al-Jofai and Ibn-Tameem are weak narrators. Imam Ibn Abi Hatim had even called it Munkar narration i.e. one which is against Sahih ahadith.

There are some other weak narrations reported on this issue and attributed to different companions. There analysis is as follows.

Narration of Abi Hurraira (may Allah be pleased with him)

It is reported in Musnad Ahmed juz 2, pg 367

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حدثنا عبد الله حدثني أبي ثنا سريج قال ثنا عبد الله بن نافع عن بن أبي ذئب عن سعيد المقبري عن أبي هريرة قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم : لا تتخذوا قبري عيدا ولا تجعلوا بيوتكم قبورا وحيثما كنتم فصلوا علي فإن صلاتكم تبلغني

Narrated Abi Hurraira that

Messenger of Allah peace be upon him said: Do not take my grave as a place of fair and do not make your houses, graves and pray for blessings on me, from wherever you are.

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It is reported in Muajam Al-Awsat by Tabarani, juz 17 pg 339

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حدثنا موسى بن هارون ، نا مسلم بن عمرو الحذاء المديني ، نا عبد الله بن نافع ، عن ابن أبي ذئب ، عن سعيد بن أبي سعيد المقبري ، عن أبي هريرة ، عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال : « لا تجعلوا بيوتكم قبورا ، ولا تجعلوا قبري عيدا ، وصلوا علي ، فإن صلاتكم تبلغني حيث ما كنتم » «

Narrated Abu Hurraira Messanger of Allah said:

Do not make your houses graves, and do not take my grave as a fair, and pray for blessings on me, as your prayers would reach me from wherever you are.

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Also Tabarabi said after the narration

لم يصل هذا الحديث عن ابن أبي ذئب إلا عبد الله بن نافع ، تفرد به : مسلم بن عمرو »

.. this narration does not connect with Ibn Abi Zaib but only via Abdullah bin Nafay, taffarad (only reported by) by Muslim bin Amr.

Haithami said  (Majma-e-Zawaid, juz 2, pg 292):  رواه أبو يعلى وفيه عبد الله بن نافع وهو ضعيف

… narrated by Abi Yala and it has Abdullah bin Nafay and he is a weak narrator

Narration of Ali bin Abi Talib (may Allah be pleased with him)

It is reported in Masnad Abi Yala, juz 14 pg 2

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حدثنا موسى بن محمد بن حيان ، حدثنا أبو بكر الحنفي ، حدثنا عبد الله بن نافع ، أخبرني العلاء بن عبد الرحمن قال : سمعت الحسن بن علي بن أبي طالب قال : قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : « صلوا في بيوتكم ، لا تتخذوها قبورا ، ولا تتخذوا بيتي عيدا ، صلوا علي وسلموا ، فإن صلاتكم وسلامكم يبلغني أينما كنتم »

Hassan bin Ali bin Abi Talib said that Messeneger of Allah peace be upon him said  Pray at your homes and do not take them as graves and do not take my grave as a fair, pray for blessings on me and your prayers for blessings and safety reach me wherever you are

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Also reported in Masnad Abi Yala , juz 1  pg 452; Musanif Ibn Abi Sheeba, juz 2 pg 150;

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حدثنا أبو بكر بن أبي شيبة ، حدثنا زيد بن الحباب ، حدثنا جعفر بن إبراهيم ، من ولد ذي الجناحين ، قال : حدثنا علي بن عمر ، عن أبيه ، عن علي بن حسين ، أنه رأى رجلا يجيء إلى فرجة كانت عند قبر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ، فيدخل فيها فيدعو ، فنهاه ، فقال : ألا أحدثكم حديثا سمعته من أبي ، عن جدي ، عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ، قال : « لا تتخذوا قبري عيدا ، ولا بيوتكم قبورا ، فإن تسليمكم يبلغني أينما كنتم »

Ali bin Hussain saw one person who reaches to the cavity near the grave of Messenger of Allah peace be upon him and entered it and called , (Hussain) forbade him and said I narrate to you what I heard from my father from grandfather from Messenger of Allah peace be upon him said Do not take your houses as grave as your prayer of blessings reach me wherever you are

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Haithami said Majam-e- Zawaid, juz 4, pg 7

رواه أبو يعلى وفيه جعفر بن إبراهيم الجعفري ذكره ابن أبي حاتم ولم يذكر فيه جرحاً وبقية رجاله ثقات

… narrated by Abi Yala and it has Jafar bin Ibrahim Al-Jafari, Ibn Abi Hatim has talked about him and has not reported any Jirah and rest of the narrators are authentic

However Ibn-Hajar  quoted this narration and said in Lisan al-Mezan, juz 1,pg 249

 فلعل إبراهيم نسبه إلى جده الأعلى جعفر إن كان الخبر لجعفر

.. probably Ibrahim  has attributed this narration to his grandfather Jafar, if this report is from Jafar.

Hence Ibn-Hajar showed his disfavour for this narration in Lisan al-Mezan. Further it mentions about فرجة كانت عند قبر  cavity in grave of Messenger of Allah peace be upon him , which is against the historical record available to us. There had never been a cavity in the grave of Prophet.

Narration of Hasan bin Ali (may Allah be pleased with him)

It is reported in Muajam Al-Kabeer by Tabarani, juz 3 pg 82

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حدثنا أحمد بن رشدين المصري ثنا سعيد بن أبي مريم ثنا محمد بن جعفر أخبرني حميد بن أبي زينب : عن حسن بن حسن بن علي بن أبي طالب عن أبيه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قال : حيث ما كنتم فصلوا علي فإن صلاتكم تبلغني

Narrated Hasan bin Hasan bin Ali bin Abi Talib from his father that Messenger of Allah peace be upon him said wherever you are pray for blessings on me  as your blessings would reach me.

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In Muajam Al-Awsat juz 1 pg 371

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حدثنا أحمد بن رشدين قال : نا سعيد بن أبي مريم قال : نا محمد بن جعفر قال : أخبرني حميد بن أبي زينب ، عن حسين بن حسن بن علي بن أبي طالب ، . عن أبيه ، أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال : « حيثما كنتم فصلوا علي ، فإن صلاتكم تبلغني » لا يروى هذا الحديث عن الحسن بن علي إلا بهذا الإسناد ، تفرد به : ابن أبي مريم

Narrated Hasan bin Hasan bin Ali bin Abi Talib from his father that Messenger of Allah peace be upon him said wherever you are pray for blessings on me as your prayers would reach me. No body reports this narration from Hasan bin Ali except with this chain and it is only reorted by Ibn Abi Mariam.

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Haithami said in Majma-e-Zawaid, juz 11, pg 29

رواه الطبراني في الكبير والأوسط وفيه حميد بن أبي زينب ولم أعرفه، وبقية رجاله رجال الصحيح.

Narrated Tabarani in Al-Awsat and it has Hameed bin Abi Zainab and I do not know him, and rest of the narrators are from Al-Sahih.

Therefore the narrations are reported by an unknown narrator and thus weak.

Narration Abi Masood Al-Ansari (may Allah be pleased with him)

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حدثنا الشيخ أبو بكر بن إسحاق الفقيه ، أنبأ أحمد بن علي الأبار ، ثنا أحمد بن عبد الرحمن بن بكار الدمشقي ، ثنا الوليد بن مسلم ، حدثني أبو رافع ، عن سعيد المقبري ، عن أبي مسعود الأنصاري رضي الله عنه ، عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال : « أكثروا علي الصلاة في يوم الجمعة ، فإنه ليس أحد يصلي علي يوم الجمعة إلا عرضت علي صلاته »

Abi Masood Al-Ansari said that Messenger of Allah peace be upon him said  Increase your prayer of blessings on me on Friday, in fact there is no one who would pray for blessings  on me and it would not be presented to be.

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It contains إسماعيل بن رافع who is a weak narrator.  (From Tahzibul-Kamal, juz 3 pg 85 )

Yahyah bin moin called him ضعيف Weak also called him ليس بشيء i.e. He is nothing

Ahmed bin Hanbal  and Abu Hatim said: منكر الحديث Munkar-ul-Hadith

Nisai called him siqah once but also متروك الحديث   i.e one whose narrations are rejected.

Narration of Annas (may Allah be pleased with him)

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حدثنا أحمد قال : نا إسحاق قال : نا محمد بن سليمان بن أبي داود قال : نا أبو جعفر الرازي ، عن الربيع بن أنس ، عن أنس بن مالك ، عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال : « من ذكر الله ففاضت عيناه من خشية الله حتى تصيب الأرض دموعه لم يعذبه الله يوم القيامة » وقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم : « من صلى علي بلغتني صلاته ، وصليت عليه ، وكتبت له سوى ذلك عشر حسنات » « لم يرو هذين الحديثين عن أبي جعفر إلا محمد بن سليمان

Anas narrated that Messenger of Allah peace be upon him said: One who talks about Allah until his tears go to ground due to fear of Allah, Allah would not torment him on day of Judgement and Prophet said whoever prays on me, his prays of blessing would reach me, I pray for him  and ten good deeds would be written for him

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It contains a narrator أبو جعفر الرازي, who is a weak narrator. His name is عيسى بن ماهان and in Doafa Al-Uqaili, Uqaili said (juz 3 pg 388)

Ahmed said ليس بالقوي في الحديث Not a strong narrator

Also Ahmed  called him مضطرب الحديث (Majroheen by Ibn-Habban juz 2, pg 120)

As the severity of Sheerk increases. Reports are quoted  that our deeds are presented even on our dead relatives!

1. It is reported in Mustadrak Al-Hakim juz 6 pg 331

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أخبرنا أبو النضر الفقيه و إبراهيم بن إسماعيل القاري قالا : ثنا عثمان بن سعيد الدارمي ثنا يحيى بن صالح الوحاظي ثنا أبو إسماعيل السكوني قال : سمعت مالك بن أدى يقول : سمعت النعمان بن بشير رضي الله عنهما يقول و هو على المنبر : سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يقول : ألا أنه لم يبق من الدنيا إلا مثل الذباب تمور في جوها فالله الله في إخوانكم من أهل القبور فإن أعمالكم تعرض عليهم

Noman bin Bashir said and he was on the pulpit that he heard Messenger of Allah peace be upon him said there remains in world but like flies on dates in Joo By Allah, your deeds are presented on your  brothers from the people of graves

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For this narration Dahabi says in Talkhis that

تعليق الذهبي قي التلخيص : فيه مجهولان

It has unknown narrators

 

2. It is reported in Musnad Abi Dawood Al-Tiyalisi juz 5 pg 250

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حدثنا أبو داود قال حدثنا الصلت بن دينار عن الحسن عن جابر بن عبد الله قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم : ان أعمالكم تعرض على عشائركم واقربائكم في قبورهم فان كان خير استبشروا بذلك وان كان غير ذلك قالوا اللهم ان يعملوا بطاعتك

Jabir bin Abdullah narrated that Messenger of Allah peace be upon him said Indeed your deeds are presented on your family memebers and relative in graves, so on your good deeds they rejoice and on contrary (i.e. on evil deeds) they say O Allah they would (inshallah)  act in obedience.

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This narration has الصلت بن دينار  who is a very weak narrator. His real name is

الصلت بن دينار الأزدي الهنائي أبو شعيب المجنون

Ibn-Habban writes in Majroheen, juz 1 pg 376

ان أبو شعيب ممن يشتم أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ويبغض علي بن أبي طالب وينال منه ومن أهل بيته على كثرة المناكير في روايته

Abu Shu’aib used to insult the companions of the Messenger of Allah PBUH and he hates Ali bin Abi Talib and attributed from him and his family many Munkar narrations

3. Ibn-Katheer has quoted statements of peoples from book of Ibn-Abi Dunyah in Tafseer juz 6 pg 327 and then said

وهذا باب فيه آثار كثيرة عن الصحابة. وكان بعض الأنصار من أقارب عبد الله بن رواحة يقول: اللهم إني أعوذ بك من عمل أخزى به عند عبد الله بن رواحة، كان يقول ذلك بعد أن استشهد عبد الله.

And in this chapter there are many narrations from Companions (of Prophet) and some Ansar which belong to the relatives of Abdullah bin Rawaha said: O Allah I seek your refuge  from the act which would degrade me in front of Abdullah bin Rawaha- said after death of Abdullah!

It is quoted from the book of Ibn-Abi Dunyah المنامات لابن أبي الدنيا pg 7

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حدثنا أبو بكر ، ثني محمد بن الحسين ، ثنا علي بن الحسن بن شقيق ، ثنا عبد الله بن المبارك ، عن صفوان بن عمرو ، عن عبد الرحمن بن جبير بن نفير ، أن أبا الدرداء ، كان يقول : « إن أعمالكم تعرض على موتاكم فيسرون ويساءون » وكان أبو الدرداء ، يقول عند ذلك : « اللهم إني أعوذ بك أن أعمل عملا يخزى به عبد الله بن رواحة »

Abdullah bin Jubair bin Nufair said that Abu Dardah said Indeed your deeds are presented on your deads so (either) they are happy (or) sad and Abu Dardah used to say:  O Allah I seek your refuge  from the act which would degrade me in front of Abdullah bin Rawaha

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Both Abdullah bin Rawahah (d 8 AH)  and Abi Darda is عويمر بن مالك (d. 32 AH) are  the companions of Prophet peace be upon him.  It is stated by Dahabi  in العبر في خبر من غبر that Ibn Abi Dunyah (d 281 AH) has heard narrations from

أبو جعفر محمد بن الحسين البرجلاني. مصنف الزهديات وشيخ ابن أبي الدنيا

Abu Jafar Muhammad bin Hussain Al-Barjalani, author of Al-Zuhudiyyat- and Sheikh of Ibn-Abi Dunyah

Muhammad bin Hussain (d. 238 AH) and his student Ibn Abi Dunyah (d 281 AH) are famous for collecting reports which are much inclined towards spiritualism.

It is a broken narration, as explained following

Dahabi said in  العبر في خبر من غبر pg 27

عبد الرحمن بن جبيْر بن نفَير الحضرمِي الحمصي. وهو مُكْثرٌ عن أبيه وغيره. ولا أعلمه روى عن الصحابة. وقد رأى جماعة من الصحابة

Abdur Rehman bin Jubair bin Nafeer Al-Hadrami narrated much from his father and others and I do not know his reports from companions of Prophet and he saw some of them.

It is stated in  الإكمال  by  ابن ماكولا  that his father is Tabayee

جبير بن نفير من قدماء التابعين، روى عن أبيه وغيره. وابنه عبد الرحمن بن جبير بن نفير.

Jubair bin Nufeer from the elder of Tabayeen narrated from his father and his son is Abdur Rehman bin Jubair bin Nafeer

AburRehman bin Jubair  (d. 118 AH) has heard not from companions and his narration  with companions of prophet are Mursil (i.e. narrator is missing in between). Therefore one cannot establish faith on this.

 

The narrations of presentation of our deeds on Prophet and on our dead relatives are weak.  The prayer for blessings on Prophet starts with words O Allah .  How would angels detour and take the prayers to Prophet or dead Muslims?

 

1. Is it not the case that Prophet took the oath in Hubabiyah from Muslims over the news of Uthman’s death. Uthman was not actually killed but imprisoned by pagans. Uthman could say prayer of blessings on Prophet and Roaming angels could have taken this to Prophet!

 

2. In Quran it is informed that there are Munafique in Medinah which no one knows except Allah and not even Prophet knows about them.

 

And among the bedouins round about you, some are hypocrites, and so are some among the people of Al-Madinah, they exaggerate and persist in hypocrisy, you (O Muhammad ) know them not, We know them. We shall punish them twice, and thereafter they shall be brought back to a great (horrible) torment. (9:101)

 

But if the Roaming angels bring the prayer of blessings to Prophet, he could have known about the hidden hypocrites.

 

3. In Prophet’s life time he sent 70 scholars of Quran to some community for preaching where they all were murdered deceitfully. When they were massacred they prayed to Allah OAllah inform you Prophet.  They do not need to say this had they have the belief of presentation of deeds on Prophet.

 

To get rid of these arguments the scholars who believe in presentation of deeds say that it is possible the presentation is started after the death of Prophet. But this reply doesn’t help as in the narration  it is reported that companions asked how the deeds are presented after death when body is disintegrated. Also the role of roaming angels is described without the condition that this would happened after death.

 

 

 

In this treatise it is exhibited that how the weak narrations  of presentation of Ummah deeds on Prophets and dead relatives have been taken as an article of faith by some scholars. The presentation of deeds is not a simple issue. It is basically an intrusion in the Divine attribute of Omniscience (Ilm-ul-Ghayb) i.e. Knowledge of every thing.  May Allah save us from all kinds of Sheerk  (associating others the Divine Attributes).

 

As a Muslim it is important that we bring our believes in accordance with Holy Quran. May Allah send his blessings on our last Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him and guide us towards His Mercy and Heavens and save us from Azab al-Qabr and Hell  Fire. Amen

 

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