Hearing of Dead

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Hearing of the Dead

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Allah has informed his Messenger peace be upon him that (Al-Naml, 80)

إِنَّكَ لَا تُسْمِعُ الْمَوْتَى وَلَا تُسْمِعُ الصُّمَّ الدُّعَاءَ إِذَا وَلَّوْا مُدْبِرِينَ

Verily, you cannot make the dead to hear (i.e. benefit them and similarly the disbelievers), nor can you make the deaf to hear the call, when they flee, turning their backs.

It is told that these pagans of Makkah would not give heed to your call towards monotheism, as if, they are dead.

After the demise of Taba-Tabbayeen this concept started mushrooming in the Muslims societies  that their  Prophet, Aulliah Allah (Friends of Allah or saints) and finally all dead Muslims can hear and even say reply to breathing humans on surface of earth. The people in grave are not really dead, as Prophet has commanded us to say Salam whenever we enter the graveyard and that prayer demands that these so-called dead people are living and have sense to reply to us. During the period of Mongol invasion on Muslims, this practice of calling dead and belief that the holy people are living in graves become so prevalent that a the then scholar  Ibn- Tamiyah (728 A.H.) said in his Fatwa al-Kubra juz 3 pg  412

فَهَذِهِ النُّصُوصُ وَأَمْثَالُهَا تُبَيِّنُ أَنَّ الْمَيِّتَ يَسْمَعُ فِي الْجُمْلَةِ كَلَامَ الْحَيِّ وَلَا يَجِبُ أَنْ يَكُونَ السَّمْعُ لَهُ دَائِمًا ، بَلْ قَدْ يَسْمَعُ فِي حَالٍ دُونَ حَالٍ كَمَا قَدْ يُعْرَضُ لِلْحَيِّ فَإِنَّهُ قَدْ يَسْمَعُ أَحْيَانًا خِطَابَ مَنْ يُخَاطِبُهُ ، وَقَدْ لَا يَسْمَعُ لِعَارِضٍ يَعْرِضُ لَهُ ، وَهَذَا السَّمْعُ سَمْعُ إدْرَاكٍ ، لَيْسَ يَتَرَتَّبُ عَلَيْهِ جَزَاءٌ ، وَلَا هُوَ السَّمْعُ الْمَنْفِيُّ بِقَوْلِهِ : { إنَّك لَا تُسْمِعُ الْمَوْتَى } فَإِنَّ الْمُرَادَ بِذَلِكَ سَمْعُ الْقُبُورِ وَالِامْتِثَالِ .

These evidences and similar show that the dead hear the living and it is not necessary that this hearing is permanent but it hears as the living can. It may sometimes hear the address of one who called … and this hearing is hearing with senses and not entails the reward, Nor there is absence of  hearing due to: {you don’t hear the dead}, which intents the hearing of graves and similar.

 

This reflects that by the year 700 A.H., the concept of hearing of dead has become a well established belief of some of the Muslims. The same point of view is then followed by Ibn-Qayyam (d. 751 A.H.), Ibn Katheer (d. 774 AH) and many others.

The earliest of Muslims do not believe in hearing of dead.  It is reported in Tafseer Tibri, juz 20 , pg 459 that

حدثنا بشر، قال: ثنا يزيد، قال: ثنا سعيد، عن قتادة( إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُسْمِعُ مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَمَا أَنْتَ بِمُسْمِعٍ مَنْ فِي الْقُبُورِ ) كذلك الكافر لا يسمع، ولا ينتفع بما يسمع.

Qattadah said: (Verily, Allah makes whom He will hear, but you cannot make hear those who are in graves), like this infidel does not hear and what he hears would not help him.

 

Qattadah, a Tabyee (companion of disciple of Prophet) , has indicated his belief that he does not belief in hearing of dead so he said likewise infidel does not hear.

For scholars who believe in hearing of the dead, the narration of Badr Well is evidence.

It is reported in Bukhari Volume 5, Book 59, Number 314:

 

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Narrated Abu Talha:

On the day of Badr, the Prophet ordered that the corpses of twenty four leaders of Quraish should be thrown into one of the dirty dry wells of Badr. (It was a habit of the Prophet that whenever he conquered some people, he used to stay at the battle-field for three nights. So, on the third day of the battle of Badr, he ordered that his she-camel be saddled, then he set out, and his companions followed him saying among themselves.” “Definitely he (i.e. the Prophet) is proceeding for some great purpose.” When he halted at the edge of the well, he addressed the corpses of the Quraish infidels by their names and their fathers’ names, “O so-and-so, son of so-and-so and O so-and-so, son of so-and-so! Would it have pleased you if you had obeyed Allah and His Apostle? We have found true what our Lord promised us. Have you too found true what your Lord promised you? “‘Umar said, “O Allah’s Apostle! You are speaking to bodies that have no souls!” Allah’s Apostle said, “By Him in Whose Hand Muhammad’s soul is, you do not hear, what I say better than they do.” (Qatada said, “Allah brought them to life (again) to let them hear him, to reprimand them and slight them and take revenge over them and caused them to feel remorseful and regretful.”)

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Also reported in Bukhari that Volume 5, Book 59, Number 317:

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Narrated Ibn Umar: The Prophet stood at the well of Badr (which contained the corpses of the pagans) and said, “Have you found true what your lord promised you?” Then he further said, “They now hear what I say.” This was mentioned before ‘Aisha and she said, “But the Prophet said, ‘Now they know very well that what I used to tell them was the truth.’ Then she recited (the Holy Verse):– “You cannot make the dead hear… …till the end of Verse).” (30.52)

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Ibn-Umer may Allah be pleased with him and Qatada both interpreted this incident as a special event. For them the hearing of dead is not a norm. Further this is the only incident of hearing of dead in which difference of opinion is reported between  Ibn-Umer and Aisah  may Allah be pleased with both of them. Ibn-Umer thought that this incident is special whereas Aishha may Allah pleased with her, said this speech was nothing but exhibited that the pagans got the knowledge of what Prophet used to tell them.

Al-Nawawi (d. 676 AH) views on this narration

Al-Nawawi (676 A.H) said in al-Majmoo juz 17 pg 224, that if someone quote the incident of well of Badr

قلنا تلك معجزة للنبى صلى الله عليه وسلم، لان الله رد إليهم أرواحهم حتى يسمعوا كلام النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، لان الاصل أن الميت لا يسمع

We say it was the miracle of Messenger of Allah peace be on him, because Allah has returned their souls until they heard the speech of Prophet, as the reality is that the dead do not hear

 

Hafiz Ibn-Rajab (d. 795 AH) views on narration

It is quoted in book Al-Ayat al-Bayyanat  by a recent scholar, Al-Bani that Ibn-Rajab said in his work أهوال القبور:

قال الحافظ ابن رجب:  وقد وافق عائشة على نفي سماع الموتى كلام الأحياء طائفة من العلماء

Hafiz Ibn-Rajab said: and agreed with Aisha in negation of hearing of the dead a group of scholars

Al-Bani views on this narration

A recent scholar, Al-Bani said in Al-Ayat al-Bayyanat pg 48

قلت : ولذلك أورده الخطيب التبريزي في ” باب المعجزات ” من ” المشكاة “ج 3 رقم 5938

I (Al-Bani) say: and that is why Khateeb al-Tibrazi brought this narration (of Badr Well)  in chapter on miracles in (his compilation) al-Mishkaat, juz 3, raqam 5938

 

So there were only two interpretations of this event. One group said that it’s a miracle (like Ibn-Umer & Qattadah) and other said that its knowledge (like Aisha peace be upon her).  On the contrary some people extracted a third opinion from this (like Ibn-Tammiyah, Ibn-Qayyam, Ibn-Katheer, Al-Subki etc) that it is neither miracle nor knowledge but a norm. All dead people can hear.  Some say time to time and some claim all the time.

Ibn-Katheer (d. 774 AH) view on narration of well of Badr

Ibn-Katheer (774 AH) said in his Tafseer juz 3, pg 579

وقد استدلت أم المؤمنين عائشة رضي الله عنها بهذه الاية { إنك لا تسمع الموتى } على توهيم عبد الله بن عمر في روايته مخاطبة النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم القتلى الذين ألقوا في قليب بدر بعد ثلاثة أيام ……  والصحيح عند العلماء رواية عبد الله بن عمر لما لها من الشواهد على صحتها من وجوه كثيرة من أشهر ذلك ما رواه ابن عبد البر مصححا له عن ابن عباس مرفوعا [ ما من أحد يمر بقبر أخيه المسلم كان يعرفه في الدنيا فيسلم عليه إلا رد الله عليه روحه حتى يرد عليه السلام ]

And argued Aisah, mother of believers may Allah be pleased with her, from the verse Verily, you cannot make the dead to hear, on the confusion regarding speech of Messenger of Allah, to the killed ones (pagans) which were thrown into the well of Badr, after three days …. But authentic among our scholars is the narration of Abdullah ibn Umer and it has many evidences due to there majority and famous among these is what had been reported by Ibn-Abul Barr and authenticated by him, (narrated)  from Ibn-Abbas that Whenever you pass by the grave of other Muslim bother which he used to recognize in the world and say Salam to him, he( person in grave)  would reply to you

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مَا مِنْ أَحَد يَمُرّ عَلَى قَبْر أَخِيهِ الْمُؤْمِن وَفِي رِوَايَة بِقَبْرِ الرَّجُل كَانَ يَعْرِفهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا فَيُسَلِّم عَلَيْهِ إِلَّا عَرَفَهُ وَرَدَّ عَلَيْهِ

إِذَا مَرَّ الرَّجُل بِقَبْر يَعْرِفهُ فَيُسَلِّم عَلَيْهِ السَّلَام وَعَرَفَهُ وَإِذَا مَرَّ بِقَبْر لَا يَعْرِفهُ رَدَّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَام

ما من أحد يمر بقبر أخيه المؤمن كان يعرفه في الدنيا فيسلم عليه إلا عرفه ورد عليه السلام.

إذا مر الرجل بقبر يعرفه فسلم عليه رد عليه السلام وعرفه وإذا مر بقبر لا يعرفه فسلم عليه رد عليه السلام

Meaning of above narrations is:

 

When you pass by the grave of other Muslim bother and say Salam he( person in grave)  would reply to you

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Narration of  Aisha

The narration from Aisha may Allah be pleased with her is  reported by  Ibn-Abi Dunya (ابن أبي الدنيا)  in  his book كتاب القبور but it has narrator Abdullah bin Sama’an   (عبد الله بن سمعان) whose full name is

عبد الله بن أبي زياد بن سليمان بن سمعان,

and who is a Kazzab (liar) narrator (see Tahzeen al-Tahzeeb, Al-Mezan al-Atedal).

Narration of Abi Hurrairah

 

Abu Hurrira’s narration is also reported by Ibn-Abi Dunya which contains Muhammad bin Qudamah al-Jowhari and Hashsham bin Saad both are  considered weak in hadith literature (see Mezan al-Atedal and Tahzeeb al-Tahzeeb)

Narration of Ibn- Abbas

In Al-Istazkar  (الاستذكار) by Abdul Barr, it is reported with sanad

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قال حدثنا بشر بن بكير عن الأوزاعي عن عطاء عن عبيد بن عمير عن بن عباس قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ( ( ما من أحد مر بقبر أخيه المؤمن كان يعرفه في الدنيا فسلم عليه إلا عرفه ورد عليه السلام ) )

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Ibn-Hajar said in Taqreeb al Tahzeeb, juz 1 , pg 646 عبيد بن عمير مولى بن عباس مجهول من الرابعة

Similarly the narrator بشر بن بكير  is Majhool (unknown).

Allama-Alosi said in Rooh al-Ma’ani , juz 21, pg 57

وقيل في حديث إبن عبدالبر : إن عبدالحق وإن قال إسناده صحيح إلا أن الحافظ إبن رجب تعقبه وقال : إنه ضعيف بل منكر

And it is said for hadith (reported by) Ibn Abdul Barr: and indeed although Abdul Haque said its sanad is authentic but Hafiz Ibn-Rajab has tracked it and said: It is not only weak but Munkar narration.

 

Unfortunately scholar kept quoting this narration and state that it is authenticated on authority of  Ibn-Abdul Barr.  Finally one scholar spoke out  (فتاوى الإسلام سؤال وجواب, juz 1, pg 6298)

فقد بحث أهل العلم عن هذا الحديث المعلق فلم يجدوه مسندا في كتاب ، وكل من يذكره ينقله عن تعليق الحافظ ابن عبد البر ، فهو في الأصل حديث ضعيف ، إلاأن بعض أهل العلم صححه تبعا للحافظ ابن عبد البر الذي علقه وصححه .

.. so discussed scholars this Muallaque narration which is not found in connected state in any book, and all those who had quoted it had referred Hafiz Ibn Abul Barr, and in reality the hadith is weak. In fact this authenticated by some scholars as like Ibn- Abul Barr who had quoted it Muallaq and authenticated it

It is reported in Bukhari that

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حدثنا عياش حدثنا عبد الأعلى حدثنا سعيد قال وقال لي خليفة حدثنا ابن زريع حدثنا سعيد عن قتادة عن أنس رضي الله عنه عن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم قال  : ( العبد إذا وضع في قبره وتولي وذهب أصحابه حتى إنه ليسمع قرع نعالهم أتاه ملكان فأقعداه فيقولان له ما كنت تقول في هذا الرجل محمد صلى الله عليه و سلم ؟ فيقول أشهد أنه عبد الله ورسوله فيقال انظر إلى مقعدك في النار أبدلك الله به مقعدا من الجنة ) . قال النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم ( فيراهما جميعا وأما الكافر أو المنافق فيقول لا أدري كنت أقول ما يقول الناس . فيقال لا دريت ولا تليت ثم يضرب بطرقة من حديد ضربة بين أذنيه فيصيح صيحة يسمعها من يليه إلا الثقلين

Narrated Anas:

The Prophet said, “When the slave (of Allah) is laid in his grave and his companions went away, until, Indeed he hears the footsteps, arrive two angels to him and make him sit and ask him: What did you use to say about this man, Muhammad ? He will say: I testify that he is Allah’s slave and His Apostle. Then it will be said to him, ‘Look at your place in the Hell-Fire. Allah has given you a place in Paradise instead of it.’ ” The Prophet added, “The dead person will see both his places. But a non-believer or a hypocrite will say to the angels, ‘I do not know, but I used to say what the people used to say! It will be said to him, ‘Neither did you know nor did you take the guidance (by reciting the Quran).’ Then he will be hit with an iron hammer between his two ears, and he will cry and that cry will be heard by whatever approaches him except human beings and jinns.”

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Qattadah (d. 118AH) did not believe in hearing of dead but he reported that dead would hear the foot steps? A question arises whose footsteps are these. The interpretation of this hadith in accordance with Quran is that the footsteps are that of angels not the people who had just buried him. This whole session is executed in Burzakh.

Al-Zain bin Al-Muneer (الزَّيْن بْن الْمُنِير) said (Sharah Ibn-Hajar, juz 4 pg 401 )

وَكَأَنَّهُ اِقْتَطَعَ مَا هُوَ مِنْ سَمَاع الْآدَمِيِّينَ مِنْ سَمَاع مَا هُوَ مِنْ الْمَلَائِكَة

And like hear from  Angels  (footsteps) like what (he used to) hear from humans’ (footsteps)

Also, Al-Muhlab said (Sharah Ibn- Battal, juz 5, pg 355)  that word  من يليه إلا الثقلين  (which  approaches him except humans and jinns) actually mean   هم الملائكة الذين يلون فتنته the angels which came for questioning. Therefore the only logical interpretation of this narration is that the dead hear the footsteps of angels, they question him and in case of wrong answer torture it and this cry is heard by angels themselves.

Qattadah said (Sahih Bukhari, juz 1, pg 462) that

قال قتادة وذكر لنا أنه يفسح في قبره

We are informed that his grave would be widened

As seen above Qattadah did not believe in hearing of dead. He took the speech of Prophet at Badr’s Well as a miracle of Prophet and he also said that the grave is widened. If dead does not listen then how it would reply at the time of questioning. Further the widening demands seeing. It is therefore also clear from these narrations that according to Qattadah the questing and widening is not related to this grave in earth but rather it is executed somewhere else.

Some people claim that in the shorter version of this narration the angels are not mentioned and it is said that the dead hear the footsteps as people are departing. The scholar which do not believe in the returning of the soul of dead say against this argument that in Sahih Bukhari it is reported completely with chain

قال لي خليفة حدثنا ابن زريع حدثنا سعيد عن قتادة عن أنس رضي الله عنه عن النبي

In Sahih Muslim, Sunnan Abi Dawood  and Nisai the narration is shortened by the narrators who have heard from Yazid bin Zuraiy and Abdul Wahab bin Atta. It is always the rule that the complete version of the hadith would be used for understanding instead of the shortened version, done by the Shuyukh of Muslims and Abi Dawood.

Ibn-Tammiyah said in his Fatwah juz 1, pg 349

وَقَدْ ثَبَتَ فِي الصَّحِيحَيْنِ وَغَيْرِهِمَا أَنَّ الْمَيِّتَ يَسْمَعُ خَفْقَ نِعَالِهِمْ إذَا وَلَّوْا مُدْبِرِينَ فَهَذَا مُوَافِقٌ لِهَذَا فَكَيْفَ يَدْفَعُ ذَلِكَ ؟ وَمِنْ الْعُلَمَاءِ مَنْ قَالَ : إنَّ الْمَيِّتَ فِي قَبْرِهِ لَا يَسْمَعُ مَا دَامَ مَيِّتًا كَمَا قَالَتْ عَائِشَةُ .

And this proved from Sahih  Bukhari and Muslim and others that the dead body hears the footsteps of people returning and it is in agreement then how could it be repelled (i.e. ignored). And there are scholars which say : The dead in the grave do not hear, as long as it is dead, like (what) Aisah said

From the words of Ibn-Tammiyah it is clear that there were scholars who abhor the idea of hearing of dead and Ibn-Tammiyah counted Aisah, Mother of Believers among those scholars.  

It is reported in Sahih Muslim, chapter  باب ما يقال عند دخول القبور والدعاء لأهلها

 

Narrated Aisah (may Allah pleased with her)  that Prophet peace be upon him instructed the Muslims to say prayer of blessings on their dead when they go to graveyard.

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السلام على أهل الديار من المؤمنين والمسلمين ويرحم الله المستقدمين منا والمستأخرين وإنا إن شاء الله بكم للاحقون

May blessings of Allah be on the homes of believers and Muslims, and may His mercy be on those who have departed early and on those who would come later and I will soon join you insha-Allah

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It is claimed by some scholars (like Ibn-Katheer ) that this prayer is like an address, which indicate that the dead in graves would understand this and reply. On the contrary the group of scholars who believe that dead cannot hear, say that this is a prayer like we address but it does not mean that dead would hear as well.  Note that this narration is reported by Aisha peace be upon her, and she did not believe in hearing of dead.

It is reported by Dahabi in Tahrikh al-Islam, juz 1, pg 642 that Ibn-Umer was informed about the arrival of Asma in mosque, after the crucifixion of Ibn-Zubair

وقال حميد بن زنجويه : ثنا ابن أبي عباد ثنا سفيان بن أبي عيينة عن منصور بن عبد الرحمن عن أمه قالت : قيل لابن عمر أن أسماء في ناحية المسجد وذلك حين قتل ابن الزبير وهو مصلوب فمال إليها فقال : إن هذه الجثث ليست بشيء وإنما الأرواح عند الله فاتقي الله وعليك بالصبر

It was said to Ibn ‘ Umar that Asma is in the mosque, while Ibn al-Zubayr was killed and crucified, so he said to her: that these corpses are nothing and indeed the souls are with Allah, so fear Allah and you have to be patient

Ibn-Umer talked with the crucified body of Abdullah bin Zubair (Sahih Muslim, juz 4 , pg 1971)

عبدالله بن عمر فوقف عليه فقال السلام عليك أبا خبيب السلام عليك أبا خبيب السلام عليك أبا خبيب أما والله لقد كنت أنهاك عن هذا أما والله لقد كنت أنهاك عن هذا أما والله لقد كنت أنهاك عن هذا

Ibn-Umer stopped by and said Salam to you O Aba Khubaib, Salam to you O Aba Khubaib, O Aba Khubaib by Allah I warned you from doing this, by Allah I warned you from doing this, by Allah I warned you from doing this

This shows that Ibn-Umer talked with the soul-less dead body and he did not believe that Ibn-Zubair  is actually hearing the speech and he said السلام عليك .

Scholars who believe in hearing of dead then present the following narration, reported by Ibn Abi Sheba, juz 3, pg 27

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حدثنا عبيد الله بن موسى عن بن أبي ذئب عن قرة عن عامر بن سعد عن أبيه أنه كان يرجع من ضيعته فيمر بقبور الشهداء فيقول السلام عليكم وانا بكم للاحقون ثم يقول لأصحابه ألا تسلمون على الشهداء فيردون عليكم

His father was returning from his farm,  and he passed by the graves of the martyrs, said peace and blessings of  Allah  and we shall meet soon then he said to his companions why don’t you say salam to  martyrs so that they respond to you.

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In this narration, the narrator قرة is unknown. This is the only narration in whole hadith literature with this chain and that makes this narration Gharib (isolated) and weak. Ibn Abi Zaib (159 AH) is although a siqa narrator but Ahmed said (Tahzeeb al-Kamal juz 25 pg 630)

 ابن أبي ذئب كان لا يبالي عن من يحدث

Ibn Abi Zaib does not care from whom he is narrating

The scholars who believe in returning of the soul, claim that the narrator قرة   full name is

قرةبن خالد السدوسي but they present no evidence for this.

 

The purpose of visiting graveyard is to remind oneself the fact that one day we all go there. But when we go there it is taught that we say Salam to them. But that is not the purpose but the Adab or protocol. Also, to send Salam to Martyrs it is not necessary to go to graves, as it is reported by Bukhari inVolume 1, Book 12, Number 794:

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Narrated Shaqiq bin Salama: ‘Abdullah said, “Whenever we prayed behind the Prophet we used to recite (in sitting) ‘Peace be on Gabriel, Michael, peace be on so and so. Once Allah’s Apostle looked back at us and said, ‘Allah Himself is As-Salam (Peace), and if anyone of you prays then he should say, All the compliments, prayers and good things are due to Allah: peace be on you, O Prophet and Allah’s mercy and blessings be on you. Peace be on us an on the true pious slaves of Allah. If you say that, it will be for all the slaves in the heaven and the earth. I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and I also testify that Muhammad is His slave and His Apostle).”

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It is reported in Musnad Abi-Yalah (juz 6 , pg 84) that

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حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ عِيسَى ، حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ وَهْبٍ ، عَنْ أَبِي صَخْرٍ ، أَنَّ سَعِيدًا الْمَقْبُرِيَّ أَخْبَرَهُ ، أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ ، يَقُولُ : سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ، يَقُولُ : وَالَّذِي نَفْسُ أَبِي الْقَاسِمِ بِيَدِهِ ، لَيَنْزِلَنَّ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ إِمَامًا مُقْسِطًا وَحَكَمًا عَدْلا ، فَلَيَكْسِرَنَّ الصَّلِيبَ ، وَلَيَقْتُلَنَّ الْخِنْزِيرَ ، وَلَيُصْلِحَنَّ ذَاتَ الْبَيْنِ ، وَلَيُذْهِبَنَّ الشَّحْنَاءَ ، وَلَيُعْرَضَنَّ عَلَيْهِ الْمَالُ فَلا يَقْبَلُهُ ، ثُمَّ لَئِنْ قَامَ عَلَى قَبْرِي ، فَقَالَ : يَا مُحَمَّدُ لأُجِيبَنَّهُ

Abu Hurrairah said that I heard Messenger of Allah peace be upon him said: By Being (Allah) in whose hands the life of Abi Qasim (Prophet himself) is Indeed Jesus son of Mary would descend (from sky) as a  fair and a just Imam. He would  break the Cross and kill the pig, and rectify the relations  and hostility would vanish and money would be offered to him but he would not accept it and then when he stands on my grave (for prayer of blessing he would )say O Muhammad  (and) I would reply (to him)!

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This narration is reported by   أَبِى صَخْرٍ حُمَيْدِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ who is a controversial narrator, some  hadith scholars have endorsed his narration but others have rejected him as well.

 

Ibn- Moin and Ibn- Addi called him ضعيف (Mezal al-Ateedal, juz 1, pg 612)

Ibn- Shaheen called him  ضعيف in his work  تاريخ أسماء الضعفاء والكذابين juz 1, pg 75)

A similar kind of  hadith is also reported by Imam Muslim in his Sahih with chain

 

أَنَّ سَعِيدًا الْمَقْبُرِيَّ أَخْبَرَهُ ، أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ

 

where it does not contains the addition (i.e. he stands on my grave and say O Muhammad I would reply). It is therefore an addition done by narrator Abi Sakhar أَبِي صَخْرٍ  .

It is reported by Dahabi in Mezan al-Atedal in discussion on narrator Muhammad bin Marwan:

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العلاء بن عمرو الحنفي، حدثنا محمد بن مروان، عن الاعمش، عن أبى صالح، عن أبى هريرة – مرفوعا: من صلى على عند قبري سمعته، ومن صلى على نائيا بلغته

Narrated Abu Hurraira:  I hear the one who say Salam to me near my grave, and who say it far from me, his Salam is conveyed to me.

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The narrator محمد بن مروان is a liar Dahabi says تركوه واتهمه بعضهم بالكذب. Narrations are not taken and some (scholars ) have blamed him for lies.  Uqaili said in Doafa Uqaili, juz 4 pg 136 after quoting this narration

لا أصل له من حديث الأعمش وليس بمحفوظ ولا يتابعه إلا من هو دونه

It has no source from Aamash and not a saved narration and no one else followed except those who are of similar kind

 

Ibn-Hajar said in Fathul-Bari juz 10  pg 243

وَأَخْرَجَهُ أَبُو الشَّيْخ فِي ” كِتَاب الثَّوَاب ” بِسَنَد جَيِّد بِلَفْظِ ” مَنْ صَلَّى عَلَيَّ عِنْد قَبْرِي سَمِعْته ، وَمَنْ صَلَّى عَلَيَّ نَائِيًا بُلِّغْته

And Abu Sheikh has brought it in Kitab al-Sawab with good chain[1] and with words I hear the one who say Salam to me near my grave, and who say it far from me, his Salam is conveyed to me.

It is stated in Aoon al-Mabood juz 4 pg 242

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وَأَخْرَجَ أَبُو الشَّيْخ فِي كِتَاب الصَّلَاة عَلَى النَّبِيّ صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ آلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ : حَدَّثَنَا عَبْد الرَّحْمَن بْن أَحْمَد الْأَعْرَج حَدَّثَنَا  الحسين بْن الصَّبَّاح حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو مُعَاوِيَة حَدَّثَنَا الْأَعْمَش عَنْ أَبِي صَالِح عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَة قَالَ قَالَ رَسُول اللَّه صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ : ” مَنْ صَلَّى عَلَيَّ عِنْد قَبْرِي سَمِعْته ، وَمَنْ صَلَّى عَلَيَّ مِنْ بَعِيد أُبْلِغْته ، قَالَ اِبْن الْقَيِّم فِي جَلَاء الْأَفْهَام : وَهَذَا الْحَدِيث غَرِيب جِدًّا .

And Abu Sheikh has brought it in Kitab-al-Salat ala al-Nabi : (quoted sanad) .. Ibn-Qayyam said in Jilla al-Ifham and this narration is very Gharib

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In Jila-al-Ifham the sanad is

وقال أبو الشيخ في كتاب الصلاة على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم : حدثنا عبد الرحمن بن أحمد الأعرج ، حدثنا الحسين بن الصباح ، حدثنا أبو معاوية ،حدثنا الأعمش ،عن أبي صالح ، عن أبي هريرة –

 

The word Ghharib indicate that no one else report this narration. As such there is no evidence that this narration is available to early scholars of hadith. A natural question is then why it is kept so secret that no one knows about this chain except Abu Sheikh ?  Even Ibn-Qayyam who is an stalwart supporter of hearing of death said that narration is very Gharib.

 

Both in Jilla al-Ifham and Aaon al-Mabood the name of narrator is Hussian bin As-Sabah, who is an  unknown narrator.  Further Aamash has heard this narration from Abi Salah. Which Abi Salah is this?  Aamash is Mudlis narrator and it is sometimes necessary to know from where Mudlish narrator has heard the report. Further the narration with use of عَنْ  from Mudlis narrator is not acceptable. Abu Zara’ al-Dimishqui said (pg 230) said Ahmed said:

وأبو صالح الذي روى عنه الأعمش: سميع

Ahmed said  and Abu Salah from whom Amash narrates (is) Sami

 

His name is Sami al-Ziyyat Al-Kofi. Ibn-Hajar (d 852 AH) said  for him in Taqreeb al-Tahzeeb  مقبول من السادسة  Maqbool in sixth category.

Sixth category contains the narrators which are lowest in authentication.

السادسة: من ليس له من الحديث إلا القليل، ولم يثبت فيه ما يترك حديثه من أجله، وإليه الاشارة بلفظ ” مقبول ” حيث يتابع، وإلا فلين الحديث.

Sixth: one from which there are very few reports of hadith, and it is not proved that his hadith would be rejected due to this and it is connoted with the word Maqbool when there is a support(ing narration) and otherwise weak-in-hadith

 

As this narration has no other supporting narration it would be necessary to reject it instead of taking it as an article of faith.

Now some views about the book, from which this narration is reported. Ibn-Tammiyah said in Majmoo Al-Fatawah juz 1, pg 252 for Abu al-Sheik (d. 369 AH)

رواه أبو الشيخ الأصبهانى فى كتاب فضائل الأعمال وفى هذا الكتاب أحاديث كثيرة كذب موضوعة

Abu Sheikh Al-Isbahani has narrated this in  in book Fazail al-Aamal and in this book there are many narrations which are lies and manufactured narrations.

Dahabi said (Seer al-Allam al-Nubla juz 16 pg 279  يملا تصانيفه بالواهيات  Filled his books with Wahiyyat.

A scholar of recent era, Al-Bani said(Al-Ayat al-Bayyenat pg 80)

وأما حديث ” من صلى علي عند قبري سمعته ومن صلى علي نائيا أبلغته ” فهو موضوع كما قال شيخ الإسلام ابن تيمية في ” مجموع الفتاوى ” ( 27 / 241 ) وقد خرجته في ” الضعيفة ” ( 203 ) . ولم أجد دليلا على سماعه صلى الله عليه وسلم سلام من سلم عند قبره وحديث أبي داود ليس صريحا في ذلك فلا أدري من أين أخذ ابن تيمية قوله ( 27 / 384 ) : أنه صلى الله عليه وسلم يسمع السلام من القريب

And the hadith من صلى علي عند قبري سمعته ومن صلى علي نائيا أبلغته is concocted as said by Ibn Tammiyah in Majmoo al-Fatawah (27/241) and I brought it in Al-Daifa and I do not got the proof of hearing of Salam by Prophet near his grave .. ….and I do not know from where got Ibn-Tammiyah that he said (27/384) Indeed (Prophet) peace be upon him hear the Salam when uttered nearby (his grave)

 

Further now in front of  Prophet’s burial place a verse is written:

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يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا لَا تَرْفَعُوا أَصْوَاتَكُمْ فَوْقَ صَوْتِ النَّبِيِّ وَلَا تَجْهَرُوا لَهُ بِالْقَوْلِ كَجَهْرِ بَعْضِكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ أَنْ تَحْبَطَ أَعْمَالُكُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ لَا تَشْعُرُونَ 

O you who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet (), nor speak aloud to him in talk as you speak aloud to one another, lest your deeds may be rendered fruitless while you perceive not.

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The underlying belief is that the Prophet is alive  in grave however this is wrong as Prophet is alive in Paradise.  One must exhibit dignity and respect whenever his name is uttered but he is not at  his grave.

 

An important issue in Islamic jurisprudence is that if someone took an oath that he would not talk to some person and assuming that this person is dead now and he goes to burial and talks to that person, then would that act annul hi/bs oath? Also if someone takes an oath that he would not talk to his friend and if he does so his marriage become invalid, now if the same person talks with the dead body of his friend then this would not annul his marriage.

 

1. It is reported in al-Mabsoot, juz 10, pg 407

فَإِنَّ الْمَقْصُودَ مِنْ الْكَلَامِ الْإِفْهَامُ وَذَلِكَ لَا يَحْصُلُ بَعْدَ الْمَوْتِ

And the speech (to dead) requires the understanding and that is not possible after death.

 

2. It is reported in حاشية رد المحتار, juz 4 pg 148

وأما الكلام فلان المقصود منه الافهام والموت ينافيه

And the speech (to dead) requires the understanding and the death rules it out.

 

3. Al-Nawawi (676 A.H) said in al-Majmoo juz 17 pg 224[1]

وان كلمته وهو ميت لم تطلق، لان الميت لا يكلم.

And if he speak with it and he is dead, he would not be divorced as the dead do not talk

 

Also he said that if someone quote the incident of well of Badr

قلنا تلك معجزة للنبى صلى الله عليه وسلم، لان الله رد إليهم أرواحهم حتى يسمعوا كلام النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، لان الاصل أن الميت لا يسمع.

We say it was the miracle of Messenger of Allah peace be on him, because Allah has returned their souls until they heard he speech of Prophet, as the reality is that the dead do not hear

 

4. It is written in  الفروع لابن مفلح  juz 3, pg 348 that Ibn-Jawzi (597 AH) said

وَقَالَ ابْنُ الْجَوْزِيِّ فِي كِتَابِهِ السِّرِّ الْمَصُونِ : الَّذِي يُوجِبُهُ الْقُرْآنُ وَالنَّظَرُ أَنَّ الْمَيِّتَ لَا يَسْمَعُ وَلَا يُحِسُّ

Ibn Jawzi said in book Sir al-Mason: It is validated by the Quran and the consideration that the dead do not hear and sense 

 

 

The final conclusion is that the hearing of dead is not a valid belief. It is against Quran and even Mother of Believer Aisha hold the belief that dead does not hear.

 

As a Muslim it is important that we bring our believes in accordance with Holy Quran. May Allah send his blessings on our last Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him and guide us towards his mercy and Heavens and save us from Azab al-Qabr and Hell  Fire. Amen

 



[1] Although he said complete opposite in his Sharah Al-Muslim

 

 

 

 

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